My students and I study the auditory neuroethology and cognitive ecology of echolocating bats, focusing on acoustic signal production and reception for the purposes of locating prey and discriminating good food from bad. We also study the design and evolution of defensive signals in moths and other insects with bat-detecting ears. Current areas of investigation include dynamic control of biosonar beam shape and information update in aerial hawking bats, brain evolution and cognitive specializations in bats related to foraging and migration, and the evolution and maintenance of anti-bat defensive mechanisms in eared moths. We use an integrated approach across organizational levels, from single-cell recordings of auditory activity in insects to community-wide comparative analyses of multiple predator, multiple prey interactions. Recently, we have begun to investigate echolocation in toothed whales and Oilbirds.